Alfred Russel Wallace

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AlfredRusselWallace (1823-1913) : 영국의 Naturalist 로 찰스다윈과 함께 자연선택에 기반한 진화론을 발표했다. 그러나 다윈과는 달리 인간의 정신능력은 자연선택에 의해 진화할 수 없었을 것으로 생각했다.

말레이 반도에서의 연구중에 Wallace's Line 을 가정했다. 이 선은 Malay Archipelago 의 섬 사이를 가로지르는 것이었는데, 그 선을 경계로 양쪽의 아시아와 오스트레일리아의 동물군이 나뉘었다. 사회정책에 있어서는 사회주의자였고, 평화주의자였으며, 토지의 국유화를 주장했다. 여성의 투표권 행사를 찬성하기도 했다고 한다.

또한 백신에 대해 강력하게 반대하기도 했고, Spiritualism (심령술, 강신술, 정신주의)를 믿었다고 한다. 그가 이처럼 spiritualism을 믿게 된것은 아마도 그의 장남의 죽음 때문일것으로 생각되고 있다. 덕분에 그는 인간의 정신의 진화를 자연선택외의 것에서 찾으려고 노력하게 되었던 것이다. 그 결과 Wallace's Problem(인간의 두뇌용적이 이미 250,000년전에 현대인의 용적에 도달했는데도 불구하고 40,000년전부터에서야 비로서 인간적이라고 부를 수 있는 문화, 예술, 언어 등이 진화한 것에 대해 그는 의문을 가지고 있었다)이 등장하게 된다. MirrorNeurons 에서는 이 문제를 MirrorNeurons진화로 설명하고 있다.

그는 신학적인 관점으로 접근하지는 않았지만, 전도사로 일했다. 인간만은 진화의 역사에서 예외라고 생각하게 된 것은 아마도 그러한 기독교적인 편견도 작용했던 것으로 보인다. 이 문제를 비롯한 수 많은 문제들이 다윈으로 하여금 십수년간 진화론의 발표를 늦추게 만들었던 원인이었다. --김우재

In estimating these numbers <i.e. of species in different regions> I have had the usual difficulty to encounter, of determining what to consider species and what varieties. ... The rule, therefore, I have endeavoured to adopt is, that when the difference between two forms inhabiting separate areas seems quite constant, when it can be defined in words, and when it is not confined to a single peculiarity only, I have considered such forms to be species. When, however, the individuals of each locality vary among themselves, so as to cause the distinctions between the two forms to become inconsiderable and indefinite, or where the differences, though constant, are confined to one particular only, such as size, tint, or a single point of difference in marking or in outline, I class one of the forms as a variety of the other. |}}

Species are merely those strongly marked races or local forms which, when in contact, do not intermix, and when inhabiting distinct areas are generally regarded to have had a separate origin, and to be incapable of producing a fertile hybrid offspring. But as the test of hybridity cannot be applied in one case in ten thousand, and even if it could be applied, would prove nothing, since it is founded on an assumption of the very question to be decided - and as the test of origin is in every case inapplicable - and as, further, the test of non-intermixture is useless, except in those rare cases where the most closely allied species are found inhabiting the same area, it will be evident that we have no means whatever of distinguishing so-called "true species" from the several modes of variation here pointed out, and into which they so often pass by an insensible gradation. |}}

진화에 관한 가설을 세우면서 그가 증거로 내세운 것들


1. Large groups, such as classes and orders, are generally spread over the whole earth, while smaller ones, such as families and genera, are frequently confined to one portion, often to a very limited district.

2. In widely distributed families the genera are often limited in range; in widely distributed genera, well marked groups of species are peculiar to each geographical district.

3. When a group is confined to one district, and is rich in species, it is almost invariably the case that the most closely allied species are found in the same locality or in closely adjoining localities, and that therefore the natural sequence of the species by affinity is also geographical.

4. In countries of a similar climate, but separated by a wide sea or lofty mountains, the families, genera and species of the one are often represented by closely allied families, genera and species peculiar to the other. -


5. The distribution of the organic world in time is very similar to its present distribution in space.

6. Most of the larger and some small groups extend through several geological periods.

7. In each period, however, there are peculiar groups, found nowhere else, and extending through one or several formations.

8. Species of one genus, or genera of one family occurring in the same geological time, are more closely allied than those separated in time. |}}

That is, they will vary, and the variations which tend to adapt them to the wild state, and therefore approximate them to wild animals, will be preserved. Those individuals which do not vary sufficiently will perish. -- Tendency of Varieties: Footnotes |}} : 홈페이지로 그의 책과 아티클을 무료로 읽을 수 있다. : 찰스다윈과 그가 발표한 페이퍼를 볼 수 있다. : The Protective Colours of Animals - 1881 와 Protective Mimicry in Animals - 라는 그의 책을 공짜로. : On the Law that has Regulated the Introduction of New Species : Introduction of New Species, Tendency of Varieties, Tendency of Varieties: Footnotes 그가 작성한 세 논문(오리지날)을 볼 수 있다. 그의 Quotes 를 모아놓은 곳.

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